a hacker doing a cyberattack in a hospital
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Hospital cyberattacks:  what happens to your heath data?

Imagine you are peacefully sorting your emails at home, when one of them catches your sight. A particular email from your hospital that you have not visited for 3 years and half. This email is not really what we call a ‘positive’ one. With a drop on your forehead, you read. Here lies the news: there was a data leak in the hospital you used to go to. You know it’s bad. But how bad?
Stay with us, we are telling you more about cyberattacks in hospitals and what happens to your stolen data.

Cyberattacks in hospitals are frequent, and their number underestimated.

Figures about cyberattacks are not small ones. For example, in 2022 in France, total cost of cyberattacks held against public institutions and private companies that were a success reached €250,000,000,000 according to Asterès’ study.
Another attack happened on February 10th this year for the Armentières Hospital Center in the north of France within the night. The hospital had to temporarily close its health emergencies’ doors to reorganize its patients’ arrival and their treatments. All the computers were switched off after a ‘ransom demand’ message was sent through the hospital’s printers. Patients were moved to another hospital. As for the maternity service, it was less impacted by this cyberattack, but 130 files had to be printed to follow up 130 patients’ cares. Records that could have been stolen.
Again.
It impacted the hospital for 3 days. 



Sometimes, even insurances refuse to insure surgeons that operate without having the patient’s record available.
Hackers use different methods to attack, but the most often used is phishing (a text message or email is sent, encouraging the person to click on a fraudulent link or to download a file containing a malware). Or they can come directly within the hospital to leave an infected USB key somewhere, for someone to take and try it, out of curiosity.
Then? They could take possession of the healthcare centre’s services, monitor its activities, encrypt their data, or stole them.

Those cyberattacks are scary for those who live them, but also for the triggered patients when they know what could happen with their data.

What happens after a cyberattack?

The hospital usually needs to answer the ransom demand but for public ones, they have no legal right to give money to hackers (the French CNIL’s recommendations it to not pay as the data recovery is not guaranteed). Then, it verifies the security of its IT systems, analyses the attack in details to set up restoration work priorities, with the help of the ANSSI (the national agency in charge of the information systems security).

The CNIL also warns hospitals using not-secured enough EHR, requesting corrective measures for the data treatment. Some special confidentiality treatments can be required for patients from penal institutions.

An important point concerns the tracking of the EHR access. Knowing who logged in, when and what did this person reach is super important. Controls over these accesses need to be done regularly to spot fraudulent usage of the software.

What consequences for your personal data after a cyberattack?

Several consequences could derive from it and there is nothing good here to consider…

  • You could receive a tremendous amount of daily spam emails or unknown calls,
  • Your personal information are publicly displayed on the internet (first name, name, social security number, medical information like cancer, genetic diseases, consultations summaries, biological exam results, pathologies, …),

  • Your bank details are used all type of purchases,
  • Your infos are sold on the black market for a significant amount of money (€200 per health record),
  • Your stolen passwords are used to create another attack…

Healthcare data is the new gold. The more data you get, the more money you can get out of it.
And the more pathologies the patient has, the more valuable its data will be!

With this data, you could create new treatments, accelerate drug marketing, do predictive medicine, improve diagnosis… etc.

The more value to get, the more money at stake! The first person to find the new treatment for this or that disease will win the market, for instance.
For that matter, it is not important but mandatory for an EHR to provide super secured health data storing solutions, compliant with the evolving legal regulations in a country.

And it’s exactly what @Galeon does with its EHR solutions and its HDS and ISO 27001 certifications. 



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7 techniques to invest during the bull run market in crypto?

Investing during bull run periods takes some strategy

First of all, a quick reminder of what a bull run is: a period where prices are rising within the crypto market. It is also characterized by great upward trends, with the pressure of digital assets sales going down and trading volume going up.

Bull markets usually last from months, even years. Just like bear markets, even if there are many differences between the two.

Let’s keep in mind that if the bull run shows a good dynamic and opportunities for investors to profit from interesting returns, following the trends really closely is mandatory to spot a shift in the tendencies and act in consequences.

And while there are many types of crypto investors, there are also some common crypto investment techniques, met during a bull run market. Stay with me, I’m going to run you through the 7 common methods investors use to invest and do profit.

Get ready to invest during the bull run

If we are not sure we are entering a bull market period yet, there are some things to know like the useful techniques to start investing in crypto. Ready to dive in?

  1. ‘The Buy and Hold’ (HODL) technique:
    Typical behaviour? Investors buy digital assets and choose to hold it for an extended period of time to sell it later on, regardless of short-term price fluctuations.
    This is what most of $GALEON holders are doing when purchasing their tokens and staking them.
    Basically, Buy and Hold technique can be paralleled with when your great-great-grandparents bought gold and stack it within their mattress.
  2. The ‘Dollar-Cost Averaging’ (DCA):
    DCA involves investing a fixed amount of money (weekly or monthly) at regular intervals regardless of the current price of the cryptocurrency. This strategy helps smoothing out the impact of market volatility and can be effective during bull markets to gradually accumulate assets over time.
    It is also a non-stressful technique, it does not require staying up-to-date everyday, and that implies a long-term vision: one has to be convinced the asset will perform in the long run.
    The best way to operate? Defining the total amount you want to allocate to a specific asset during the next 12 months and the frequency of the entries (it could be weekly or monthly entries). Then, you just have to divide this total amount to the number of entries that will be made in the 12 upcoming months.
    Another parallel here would be when you pay for your mortgage: your DCA is organized by your bank for you to invest in real estate.
  3. The trading method:
    Trading actively involves to buy and sell cryptocurrencies frequently to take advantage of short-term price movements. Investors may use technical analysis, chart patterns, or key indicators to identify entry and exit points for trades. They follow the trends, breakout & momentum trading.
    Compared to the technique above, it is more stressful and requires time to check those indicators and stay on page. You need to choose to build a trading plan in advance, then pick up your best crypto trading platform, and closely monitor your investments.
    For example, an investor could do a prediction on the fall in value of the USD token. Then, he would decide to sell it against Bitcoin tokens. If his prediction was right, he would benefit from this trade. If not because USD would rise against Bitcoin, he would lose from this transaction.

     It’s like putting your shoes in Dicaprio’s in the Wolf of Wall Street: buy stocks when they are low and sell them high on a daily basis. But careful here: daily trading is a real know-how! There are no traders that succeed without putting any limits to prevent from unconsidered risks. Every trader knows it. Jerome Kerviel learned it the hard way.
  4. The leveraged trading:
    Some investors may use leverage to amplify their trading positions during bull market and gain potential return increasing their profits.
    Traders would borrow funds to multiply the potential returns on their investments. In doing so, they can better control a larger position with a smaller amount of cap. But this technique also comes with higher risks, as losses can exceed the initial investments. It is basically trading with others’ money.
    For instance, if he uses a crypto leverage of 5x, it would allow him to control a position 5 times larger than what he invested initially. Let’s say he had $100, he could then open a position of $500 using this leverage.
  5. The ‘swing-trading’ technique:
    Investors would buy and sell with big parts of their portfolio of digital assets to maximize profits. This technique implies significant risks but can offer opportunities for high returns.
    This technique requires staying up to date with the latest trends within the crypto market: only one bad swing trade, and every past profit goes in smoke!
  6. The diversification technique:
    Traders would diversify their portfolio across multiple digital assets to reduce risks and also seize opportunities across different market segments.
    Simply put, investors put their eggs in different baskets. They open diverse positions on different digital assets to maximize their earnings while reducing the risk of losing a lot with one or two coins only. They could choose according to:
    Various use cases,
    Various blockchains,
    Sectors,
    Market caps,
    Geography…

    To give an example here apart from the crypto world, let’s take the oil market: when you buy stocks from different oil companies across the globe, you assume the oil market will go up overall, but you don’t know the particularities of the Venezuelan oil reservoirs. So you invest in several companies to decrease the risk.
  7. The Staking and Yield Farming technique:
    Some investors may participate in staking or yield farming activities to earn additional rewards or interest on their crypto holdings.
    This requires to lock cryptocurrencies in smart contracts or decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols to support network operations or provide liquidity. In exchange, investors get rewards.
    As for Yield Farming, it requires active management: traders provide liquidity to decentralized finance, which comes with significant risks, like impermanent loss, smart contract vulnerability, and market fluctuations…

Whatever the investor type you are and the technique you use, not one of them is more efficient than another. Return on investment is never 100% guaranteed. Let’s keep an eye on the latest trends and prepare efficiently for the next bull run!

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What difference between a bull and a bear market in crypto?

Ever heard of the terms bull or bear market on the internet?
Those two words are frequently used in the financial and crypto world. They refer to an upward and downward market trend on the stock exchange and are notions that investors have a closer look at when they manage their investments.

Why bear and bull markets?

A good question indeed.
Why do we use the words bear and bull when referring to markets? Well, in some people’s mind, bear market gives its name to the fact that when a bear attacks its opponent, it uses its claws to bring it down, on the ground. Which directly refers to the decline of prices.
As for the bull market, it refers to a bull’s attack: the animal uses its horns to reach its opponent in an upward direction. Just like the bull market tendency does. 

Now that we have answered this simple question, let’s dive in their own definition to better understand their differences.

What is a bear market?

A bear market in crypto refers to a prolonged period of decline in the price of cryptocurrencies. During a bear market, investors’ sentiment is predominantly negative. This leads to a sustained downward trend in prices across various digital assets.  
And in such market conditions, selling pressure outweighs buying pressure, resulting in a continuous price decrease. Those bear markets show price volatility, where selling volume increases. And if sales go up, then a tendency emerges with a lack of confidence from investors, leading to further declines.
Just like a vicious circle.

Bear market periods can last for a while: from months to years.

They often coincide with broader economic downturns. Due to significant regulatory events within the cryptocurrency industry, for example.

As previous bear market periods, we could mention the cryptocurrency crash of December 2017 where Bitcoin drastically fell from $20,000 to $3,200 in just a few days. A more recent one happened in 2021 where Bitcoin mining had a social, corporate and environmental governance problem and Elon Musk accepted it and banned it subsequently from its payment method for the purchase of Tesla cars.

What is a bull market?

It won’t be a surprise: a bull market is the opposite of a bear market. It is a sustained period of rising prices and overall positive investors’ sentiment within the cryptocurrency market.

During that period of time, optimism widely spreads and buying activity increases.

Investors observe upward price movements across various digital assets.
They get more confident in general about the potential for future growth, which directly encourages further investment and speculation.

Bull markets are typically characterized by strong upward trends, reduced selling pressure, and rising trading volumes.

Certain factors can characterize these periods, such as:

  • Favourable market conditions,
  • Technological advancements,
  • Increased adoption,
  • Positive regulatory developments,
  • Or significant institutional investment.

Just as for bear markets, bull markets last for years. They often provide opportunities for investors to profit from the appreciation of asset prices.

To quote some bull run periods:

  • 2015-2017: Bitcoin price ranged from $200 in December 2015 to $670 in December 2017 due to mainstream media coverage of cryptocurrencies.
  •  2020- 2021: from September 2020 to November 2021, demands for digital payment rose and had an impact on cryptos during the COVID-19 pandemic, then was followed by the crypto winter 2022 bear market period.  

    There are lots of techniques to invest during a bull run period.

2024 crypto markets: are we entering a new bull run era?

Since the beginning of this year, Bitcoin price has tremendously increased. This could mark the entrance into the bull market with a flow of money, causing a surge in prices.

According to Glassnode, the Bitcoin market cap has increased by 141,2% since December 2023. The Ethereum market cap has increased by +79,4%.

Experienced investors know it. The fact that Ethereum does not outperform Bitcoin is a signal that there is still room for growth in large caps and Altcoins.

Certain Wall Street experts assume that the Bitcoin will reach $100,000 in 2024.

One thing remains steady: investors need to stay up to date as the crypto market seems to slightly wake up.

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Afnor’s HDS & ISO 27001 certifications delivery: why is it so important?

A revolution in the Healthcare Data Security landscape thanks to AI

In the ever-changing and complex world of healthcare, Galeon has the ambition to combine artificial intelligence & blockchain with healthcare data security. The idea behind here is to protect both patients and hospitals. Galeon has been committed for over seven years to pushing the boundaries of medicine using cutting-edge technologies.

No need to say that our current healthcare sector faces different challenges, such as the working conditions of healthcare professionals, the financial constraints found in hospitals and lack of resources or the increased threats of cyberattacks. In that context, Galeon’s innovative solution brings here a ray of hope. It secures and efficiently hyper-structures sensitive hospital data through an intuitive and advanced Electronic Health Record (EHR) system.

This EHR tool allows the confidential storage of:

  • Medical histories, 
  • Lab results, 
  • Diagnosis, 
  • Treatments,
  • Allergies, 
  • And much more. 

It has been so far already adopted by twelve French hospitals. Its aim is to connect all hospital services together on a national and international scale, thus providing unprecedented interoperability between them.

Afnor Group certified Galeon with HDS & ISO 27001 norms

Enhancing security is part of Galeon’s essential technology features. Indeed, as said above, the very main goal is clear: protecting the patient by securing his data, of course with his consent.

To specifically answer this need, Galeon ensures:

  • rigorous data access control, 
  • automatic backups, 
  • and advanced encryption to protect data against cyber threats. 

It’s a fact: when a cyberattack happens, Galeon has already proven its ability to maintain hospital operations thanks to its HDP® (Hacker Defense Protection® system). In case of a local security system intrusion, the software switches to SAFE MODE. However, caregivers can still save lives and do their job. Patients do not have to be moved from a hospital to another. Galeon has also been rewarded at 2024 CES with 3 Innovations Awards, including the Innovation Award for Cybersecurity and Privacy. 

So, Galeon has always been committed to ensuring the protection and confidentiality of healthcare data in an uncompromising way. It is considered as a trusted partner for healthcare professionals and for that reason, it has received HDS and ISO 27001 certifications in last December by the Afnor Group (the French Association in charge of Normalisation).

At the heart of this initiative lies the use of artificial intelligence on structured and large-scale health data, combined with a decentralized collaborative network called Blockchain Swarm Learning® on which IAs are trained. This innovative approach guarantees data security and integrity while preventing any unauthorized copying attempts.

Let’s recall that Galeon was already following a very strict confidentiality and security process, helped by HDS partners that were audited by Orange Security. Afnor have audited the tech company, covering a large amount of aspects (technical, regulatory and practical ones). This certification shows Galeon has a legitimate partner, able to maintain the highest standards in terms of security and privacy for healthcare information.

Why being HDS & ISO 27001 certified is so important?

Both certifications have important meanings.

  • The HDS certification (Hébergeur de Données de Santé) is provided by the Afnor Group (Association Française de Normalisation). It plays a crucial role for healthcare data in France. It is designed for entities that monitor sensitive data, such as hospitals (of course), healthcare or software providers.
    Basically, its core objective is to verify that all those entities comply with strict security and privacy standards established by French regulations (spécificaly those outlined in the French Public Health Code (Code de la Santé Publique). These standards are aimed at protecting the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of health data throughout its lifecycle, from collection to storage and transmission.The audit all entities have to go through evaluates various aspects, including access controls, data encryption, backup procedures, staff training, and incident management processes.
  • Regarding the ISO 27001 norm, it is an internationally recognized framework for information security management systems (ISMS). It provides a systematic approach to managing sensitive company information, ensuring its confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Some of its key roles are as followed:

    – Establishing an Information Security Management System (ISMS)
    – Risk Management approach
    – Legal and Regulatory Compliance
    – Enhanced Customer Confidence…
    – And more.

With those 2 certifications, Galeon ‘officially’ answers ethical imperatives met in medicine, embodying the power of technological innovation in the medical field. By unlocking the potential of AI, the company is paving the way for a safer, more efficient, and collaborative healthcare system.

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Your Crypto DNA: what type of crypto investor are you?

Tell us which crypto strategy you’d like to adopt, and we’ll tell you which crypto investor you are.

First-time investor? HODLer at heart? Crypto gem hunter? There are many categories, and you may belong to more than one of them.

Find out which statuses are most like you.

1/ The beginner crypto investor

Beginner is not necessarily a pejorative term – you have to start somewhere, after all. As you’d expect, the beginning crypto investor doesn’t really know where to start, but felt it was right to invest in crypto at some point.

If you find yourself in this beginner category, it’s a good idea to educate yourself on crypto-related topics and the surrounding news, not least to build your Wallet as well as possible.

2/ The Crypto Early investor

In a similar style to its predecessor, Crypto Early comes at an interesting time in the development of a crypto or technology.

Although he’s aware of the risks and potential stakes involved, this doesn’t mean he won’t take the risk of becoming involved in the project ecosystem.

Investor-crypto-early

3/ The crypto expert

The expert crypto investor stands out here because he’s more or less in tune with one ecosystem or another, such as NFT, DeFi or play-to-earn games.

Always on the lookout for the latest projects, he is the reference in the field. But beware: it can be difficult to keep up with him, as he’s always a thousand trains ahead.

4/ The “trader” profile

The crypto trader is a trader all in all who manages his assets in a similar way, even digitally. They know the market and its risks, and prefer to invest for the long term.

5/ The gem tracker

Once gold hunters, gem trackers search the top crypto lists for tomorrow’s nuggets. The idea being that there are so many crypto projects springing up every day, why not take advantage of a potential hype.

The crypto tracker will bet on the period during which the nugget found will increase in value. He will take care to resell everything before the price drops. Bonus to see if you’re a gem hunter: try to list more than 50 crypto projects.

6/ The famous crypto investor HODLer

The aim of a HODLer is to maximize the capital gain realized on the sale of his cryptos. However, he’s in no hurry to sell his assets immediately.

HODLers will tend to bet initially on stablecoins or bitcoins, the anchors of the good investor.

crypto investor HODLer

7/ A Whale

The Whale is an old hand in trading and investment. He has earned his reputation and wealth of crypto knowledge through his previous investments. Whatever the method, what counts is his sharp opinion on the matter.

investor-crypto-whale-

8/ Satoshi’s fans aka the Bitcoin Maximalists

A final category concerns the natives of the first hour, those who followed and continue today to keep the myth alive regarding Satoshi.

Behind the one whose identity we don’t seem to know, we find Bitcoin, the mother crypto among all cryptos, and on which, the purists of the first hour support the movement of decentralization and blockchain technology.

The aim of this article is first and foremost to simplify the technical concepts associated with crypto-currencies, in order to make them accessible to everyone. These comments are solely those of the author. It is not intended as investment advice.

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7 pillars of sustainable crypto investing

Investing in a sustainable crypto doesn’t necessarily require experience in the business, at least, it’s necessary to take a step back on several points.

Beyond the research aspect of determining which cryptos are promising in the coming months and years, there are a few key elements that will give you confidence in an emerging project.

The question is: what makes a crypto-currency sustainable?

To ensure the solidity and longevity of promising crypto, here are a few important elements.

1/ Sustainable crypto with solid technology

It is supported by robust, innovative technology. We add to this a secure architecture, scalability to meet growing demand and features that meet real user needs.

crypto durable solid base architecture

2/ Widespread use of durable crypto

Widespread use and, what’s more, widespread adoption. A sustainable crypto needs these elements to be viable over the long term. If it succeeds in creating an ecosystem where users, merchants and businesses accept it as a means of payment, this reinforces its value and sustainability.

3/ The power of community

To grow a crypto’s reputation, you need an active community. By “active”, we mean: a community engaged on a daily basis. As a leverage effect, the project does everything in its power to consolidate the ecosystem on which users rely, in particular by resolving potential problems. In fact, it’s this community that supports crypto during periods of Bear or Bull Market.

sustainable crypto solid community

4/ Focus on security when developing a crypto

Security is paramount to sustainable crypto. Logically, too, since we need to think about the community of investors who have confidence in the project. Hence the need for robust security measures to protect funds from hacking or attacks.

5/ Maintaining transparency throughout the project process

This transparency is expected both in operations and in the surrounding environment. Key information, such as governance, protocol updates and transactions, must be publicly accessible. Feel free to consult the White Paper.

crypto-sustainable-transparency-lite-paper

6/ Continuous innovation to adapt to the crypto market

A good crypto project is one that constantly innovates and updates crypto’s functionality and foundations.

The market undergoes regular changes, sometimes expected, sometimes unexpected. That’s why it’s so important to keep abreast of the latest technological advances, so that you can offer continuous improvements to remain competitive and relevant over the long term.

7/ Taking external regulations into account

While this is not the purview of crypto projects, you should always be aware of government regulations and policies. The latter can have a significant impact on a crypto’s lifespan.

Why should Galeon be considered a “good crypto” for the long term?

crypto durable buy back burn hopital

Galeon is a promising long-term crypto for all these reasons. Solid technology that adapts to maintain a secure architecture with a community that’s growing day by day.

The Galeon ecosystem is an environment based on a single objective: Good for Humanity. that makes sense. Health concerns us all, and improving hospital operations contributes to it. One example is the Buy back & burn concept, which diversifies the way hospitals are financed.

Finally, Galeon remains transparent about the direction of the project. AMAs are organized on a regular basis to keep users abreast of the latest functionalities and the progress of service rollouts in a given territory.

The purpose of this article is above all to simplify technical concepts related to crypto-currency, in order to make them accessible to everyone. These words engage only their author. It is not intended to advise the reader on his investments.

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CBDC: How states and central banks are trying to catch up with the rise of crypto-currencies

Inspired by the concept of crypto, Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) is a currency issued digitally by the central bank of a sovereign country.

In other words, CBDC is not destined to follow the phenomenon of decentralization unlike the concept of crypto, and what is more, it is regulated.

However, this new form of digital currency will use technologies such as blockchain in its mode of operation.

Having a fixed or variable value, depending on the currency to which it is attached, the CBDC, just like fiduciary money, can be used in transactions by individuals as well as institutions.

So why are governments and banks, in general, increasingly interested in CBDCs?

Beyond the security, speed and transparency of transactions, there are other factors that lead these institutions to consider an CBDC program.

CBDC decentralized crypto

The rise of Bitcoin and decentralization, the response of central banks with CBDCs

In the late 2010s, Bitcoin and other crypto’s are booming. And with this, the very spirit of distribution and exchange of value is called into question, along with the decentralization movement.

This idea that it is no longer central banks or institutions that should control all transactions.

? Cryptocurrency: hype or fact?

In addition to the emergence of a crypto community, the DIEM episode will accelerate things. DIEM is the digital currency developed by Meta (Facebook), before 2020, which aims to enhance the user experience.

The problem is that institutions and central banks have in front of them one of the biggest DATA companies in the world, reaching over 3 billion users.

As a result, DIEM will face a number of hurdles as it moves toward release, some of which are related to regulations.

In the meantime, it was renamed LIBRA, and the problems followed: price stability, confidence from large investors and legitimacy.

Little by little, the project will lose its allies (PayPal or Ebay), and in November 2020, the prospects are reduced to end up being backed by the US dollar.

Thus, we have here, the example of a virtual currency, functioning as a crypto, but which would be managed and controlled by Meta. In fine, a beautiful project, which shows the premises of the CBDC, but which will lose its interest at this time.

However, forced to note that Bitcoin and crypto are more than established, and having already considered the issue of a digital and stable currency, states will launch several test programs.

And that solution is CBDC (Central Bank Digital Currency).

CBDC central banks

Distinctions between CBDC and crypto: centralization, regulation and backing to an existing currency

The main distinction is in their ethics and their mode of operation.

CBDCs are issued by the state as a centralized form of digital currency, while crypto-currencies are decentralized digital currencies, meaning they are not issued by a central authority.

Yes, CBDCs can use blockchain technology, but their centralized form sets them apart.

Thus, central banks can control and regulate the creation, distribution and value of CBDCs, which is not the case for crypto.

And then CBDCs are generally going to be backed by an existing fiat currency and have a fixed or variable value relative to that currency, whereas crypto has a value determined by supply and demand in the crypto markets.

CBDC-decentralization-creation-digital-currency-

The different categories of CBDCs: use, mode of operation and technologies used

If we do not have the exact number of CBDCs that were created day by day, it is possible to classify them according to several categories.

  • How they are used: for retail or wholesale transactions, or for interbank transactions. They can be issued as account currencies, which are held by commercial banks as a form of reserve money, or as payment currencies, which can be used directly by consumers and businesses.
  • CBDCs can also be classified according to their mode of operation, such as distributed account system, centralized or decentralized systems. In addition, CBDCs can be based on different technologies such as blockchain, DLTs, open-source technologies and other similar technologies.

Today, although the classification is a bit fuzzy, it is important to remember that CBDCs are considered money because they are issued by central banks and used as a means of payment.

CBDC-payment-medium-transaction

Example of CBDC

While there are no officially issued and used CBDCs in the world today, more than 60 central banks and institutions are trying to establish programs for the future:

  • China’s Central Bank (CB) is working on an CBDC program called DCEP (Digital Currency Electronic Payment), which has already been tested in some cities across the country. ? On this point, issues of traceability and control of expenditures are raised .
  • The Bahamas CB launched a pilot of its CBDC in 2020, called Sand Dollar, which is currently being tested.
  • The Cayman Islands CB is working on a project called Project Sand Dollar, which should be launched soon.
  • The Bank of France launched an experimental CBDC program in March 2020, which aims to explore the potential uses of this technology.
  • The Bank of England has established a working group to explore the possibilities of creating an CBDC.
  • The European Central Bank has also announced that it is studying the possibility of creating an CBDC for eurozone citizens. ♻️ See below on this last point.

Why CBDCs are increasingly developed by institutions: reasons and benefits

There are many reasons for this.

1/ Restore economic activity: by using innovative technologies to carry out transactions (blockchain, DLT…etc), CBDCs can be redistributed directly by central banks to individuals and companies in a faster, less expensive and more secure way.

2/ In times of economic crisis: central banks could thus help governments to provide targeted aid to certain areas or groups of people.

3/ Improve the traceability of transactions: these could be traced, with the possibility of updating in real time the results of an economic activity.

In summary: speed, efficiency of transactions, stability of economic activity, the possibility of acting better in a hurry, transparency of exchanges and cost reduction.

? Of course, these are the reasons, from an objective point of view.

Ecology, an angle to compete with private companies on the development of a green CBDC

Outside of regulatory cases, central banks and institutions are becoming aware of the challenges of the digitization of money and new technologies, with a strong trend towards decentralization.

Within the framework of the EU, the issue is being studied in the direction of the fight against global warming. Thus, the idea currently discussed would be to create an account named “CO2 account”, an account fed with euro-green, a CBDC that rewards the efforts of citizens.

The concept is still under consideration and would be as follows: as soon as emissions or efforts made to this effect are recorded, a Euro-Green will be issued. For example, if a citizen buys an electric bike or a bicycle.

One can imagine the complexity of implementing these measures on a national scale, and moreover, on a European scale. However, this could come to give CBDCan appeal, to possibly stand out from some crypto.

CBDC-green euro

In a nutshell

  • CBDCs are digital currencies issued by the central banks of a sovereign country and can use blockchain technology in their operation.
  • Central banks can control and regulate the creation, distribution and value of CBDCs, which is not the case for crypto.
  • CBDCs can be classified into several categories, including their use, mode of operation, and technology used.
  • More than 60 central banks and institutions are currently working on CBDC programs, such as the DCEP in China, Sand Dollar in the Bahamas, and the Sand Dollar project in the Cayman Islands.
  • Ecology is also an angle to compete with private companies, with the idea of creating an account called “CO2 account” that rewards the efforts of citizens in the fight against global warming.
  • The advantages of CBDCs are speed, efficiency, transparency of transactions, stability of economic activity, the ability to act better in a hurry and cost reduction.
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The FOMC, the committee that influences the global economy and crypto

The FOMC, the FOMOC… the FMOC… the FOMQUE? Don’t try to pronounce it that way, just say the F.O.M.C. or the Federal Open Market Committee.

This is the committee responsible for making decisions on short-term monetary policy in the United States (interest rates and asset purchases or sales).

In other words, a committee that has a significant influence on the future of the economy in the USA, but also for all the others that gravitate around it, in other words, the world economy.

It is composed of the members of the Board of Governors of the U.S. Federal Reserve (Central Bank of the United States, also known as the Fed) and five presidents of the regional Federal Reserve Banks.

They meet 8 times a year to analyze the state of the U.S. economy (January, March, April, June, July, September, November and December).

The FOMC considers the risks and opportunities, and determines the appropriate monetary policy to achieve the institutions’ employment and inflation objectives.

So what are the impacts of the FOMC decisions on the global economy and on crypto, and what’s the news? This is what we will see here.

FOMC meeting trading decisions April 2023

PART 1 – The different operations conducted by the FOMC

As mentioned above, the FOMC makes important decisions about the economy.

For example, setting interest rates. Indeed, the FOMC can decide to raise, lower or hold rates to stimulate or slow the economy depending on its assessment of the economic situation.

The FOMC may also decide to buy or sell U.S. Treasury securities or other assets to influence interest rates and the supply of liquidity in the market.

With respect to monetary policy communication, the committee issues regular press releases to inform the public of its decisions, as well as its economic and financial outlook.

There is the determination of inflation and employment goals as well, where the FOMC takes actions to achieve these goals, such as interest rate adjustments.

Ultimately, the primary goal is to ensure the financial and economic stability of the United States, in order to move towards sustainable growth.

fomc trading investment

PART 2 – How do FOMC decisions affect your wallet?

Decisions made by the FOMC can have a significant impact on the economy of the rest of the world.

In particular, with regard to exchange rates. Since the FOMC makes interest rate decisions, this can directly influence the exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and other currencies.

Imagine the impact this can have on exports, imports and investments in foreign countries.

The same is true for capital flows between the United States and other countries. For example, if the FOMC decides to keep interest rates low, it may encourage investors to seek higher yields in other countries, which may lead to an appreciation of foreign currencies and an influx of capital into those countries.

In terms of financial stability, countries that are closely tied to the United States financially are even more concerned.

As we know, countries with an expansionary monetary policy encourage their investors to take risks. If one of these countries goes through a bad patch, it can lead to repeated financial turbulence.

And what is more, the US has a key role in the global financial system.

Countries and companies around the world should therefore keep a close eye on the FOMC’s decisions and their potential impact on their economies.

fomc global expansion import inflation

PART 3 – Should the FOMC’s opinion be taken into account?

Overall, it is better to go along with the decisions made by the FOMC.

However, there are exceptions:

  • Like the U.S. Congress, which can legislate to influence the monetary policy of the FED, which is directed by the FOMC. For example, it can pass laws to change the Federal Reserve’s mandate or to limit its monetary policy powers.
  • Central banks in other countries may also adopt countercyclical monetary policies. For example, raising interest rates to control inflation, to try to bring about an appreciation of the country’s currency and an influx of foreign capital.
  • Financial markets and investors may interpret the FOMC’s decisions differently, depending on their own interests or perceptions of the economy and financial markets.
fomc american congress

PART 4 – The impact of the FOMC on the crypto market

Since the FOMC can determine whether or not to raiseinterest rates, this necessarily results in influencing the movement of capital and liquidity flows to and from the crypto market.

For example, low interest rates may encourage investors to seek higher returns in risky assets like crypto-currencies.

As we mentioned earlier, in a risk-taking policy, investors tend to want to commit themselves in a brutal way to this or that market. And the crypto one is no exception to the rule, creating then risks of market volatility.

Another element is that the FOMC’s decisions may also have an impact on institutional investors’ interest in the crypto market.

Monetary policies that encourage increased inflation may cause institutional investors to turn to assets like Bitcoin, which are considered alternative stores of value.

fomc bank investor bitcoin

Record of President Powell’s* speech at the press conference dated May 3, 2023:

  • Conditions in the banking sector have improved since early March, but the Fed remains vigilant and is working to strengthen bank supervision and regulation.
  • Monetary policy is focused on the Fed’s two goals: promoting maximum employment and stable prices for the American people.
  • Inflation remains high, but the Fed is determined to bring it back to its 2% target.
  • Since the beginning of 2022, interest rates have increased by 5% in order to bring inflation back to its target. At this last meeting, the FOMC raised the interest rate by 0.25%.
  • Economic growth remains moderate, while the labor market remains tight. The housing market is weak and business investment is slowing.
  • The next meeting will be held on June 13 and 14.

*Jerome Hayden Powell is an American lawyer and banker. Most importantly, he has been the chairman of the Board of Governors of the U.S. Federal Reserve (FED) since 2018

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Prevention is better than cure, how medical AI can anticipate our health

Prevention is better than cure. Surprisingly, when we look at this expression that our ancestors used to repeat to us, we find it in almost every possible language and culture (e.g. in German, “prevention is the mother of the china cabinet”; in Finnish, better to look than to regret”).

Paradoxically, due to lack of time or means, medicine in general is limited in its ability to anticipate on a large or smaller scale the detection of early stage diseases.

However, a major tool appears to be an indispensable element for the future of medicine, precisely to remedy the problems of anticipation.

And it is about medical Artificial Intelligence (medical AI).

Indeed, medical AI is an incredible tool to anticipate potential diseases and prevent further complications.

AI medical analysis machine learning

1/ Early detection of diseases: how can medical AI identify at-risk patients even before symptoms appear?

Some medical AI associated with the concept of machine learning can be used to identify people at risk (likely to develop certain diseases), even before symptoms appear.

It is with this type of early detection that the chances of cure and positive treatment results are increased.

A study on the use of AI was conducted by researchers at the University of California, San Francisco to identify people at risk of developing chronic kidney disease at an early stage.

In total, health data from more than 700,000 patients were analyzed for risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease.

Using a machine learning algorithm (based on the concept of machine learning), the researchers developed a predictive tool that predicted the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in patients even before symptoms appeared.

Successfully tested in patients at high risk of chronic kidney disease, this gives great hope for the future: early detection of the disease and better management of patients.

Medical AI dialysis kidney failure

2/ Personalization of treatment: medical AI improves the effectiveness of treatments according to each patient

As its name indicates, personalized medicine allows us to adapt the treatment(s) of a patient according to specific data that characterizes him/her. The goal is to improve the effectiveness of these treatments and reduce side effects.

This time, it was researchers at Stanford University who used machine learning to personalize radiation therapy treatments for head and neck cancer patients.

In this study, data from previous patients were used to identify the most effective treatment regimens based on factors such as age, gender, tumor location, and prior response to treatment.

With this algorithm, physicians can now recommend precise doses of radiation therapy for each individual patient as a unique individual.

Ultimately, an improvement in the effectiveness of the treatment was observed, with a reduction in side effects.

This type of approach, specific to personalized medicine, can be applied to other areas of treatment to improve patient outcomes and reduce treatment costs.

medical AI radiotherapy

3/ Analysis of massive medical data to develop new personalized treatments thanks to medical AI

We were talking about machine learning earlier, but there are also other processes such as the digital twin.

A concrete example of the application of the first process in the medical field is undoubtedly the Blockchain Swarm Learning technology developed by Galeon.

Empowering researchers to analyze large amounts of medical data, and using blockchain to train medical AI, gives them the ability to identify trends and patterns to better understand diseases and develop new treatment methods.

With the consent of the individual, data can be collected from biological samples such as saliva, urine, blood(biomarkers), information on health status, lifestyle, or the environment in which the patient lives and their family history.

Starting with these massive data collections, researchers can analyze the data using AI tools to better understand diseases and develop more personalized and effective treatments for patients.

Medical AI biomarkers

4/ Reducing health care costs with early detection of diseases

With more hindsight, it appears that early detection of disease using medical AI tends to reduce healthcare costs, particularly by reducing the need for expensive treatments or intensive care.

Indeed, when the disease is detected early, the chances of preventing it from spreading (depending on the case) are maximized.

Early treatments will generally be less expensive than those dedicated to treating the disease in the long term.

The cost of tests and other procedures that could be avoided after late detection of the disease must also be taken into account.

By identifying people at high risk of developing certain diseases, physicians can avoid ordering unnecessary tests and procedures for patients who are not at risk.

And then there’s still the time-saving argument . Early detection of disease using medical AI can lead to fewer hospitalizations and follow-up visits, which can reduce healthcare costs by saving time and resources.

Medical AI reduction of care costs

Conclusion

Medical AI for:

  • Prevention of diseases and early detection of people at risk.
  • Personalize patient treatments and improve their effectiveness.
  • Data analysis with machine learning to better understand diseases and develop new treatment methods
  • Reduce health care costs by avoiding the need for expensive treatments or intensive care.
  • Avoid unnecessary tests and procedures, saving time and resources.
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Smart cities and sustainable businesses: how AI is reinventing our societies

Envisioning the future, for the new generations, means taking into account societal challenges that previous generations had already (potentially, one might say) identified.

The “top challenges of tomorrow” include an aging population, urbanization at its peak and the overexploitation of resources.

All of which does not go in the direction of reducing the social divide.

Strangely enough, it is the “older” generations that show the most reluctance towards new technologies, fearing that the era of the “man-machine” will disrupt the “normal order” of things in our societies(isn’t this somewhat paradoxical?) .

Today, however, a certain amount of research and work shows that we would have everything to gain by using, with the necessary hindsight, Artificial Intelligence (AI ) in order to reorganize our societies.

If only in terms of an analysis tool to determine the problems that surround us (environmental, health, institutions, demographic…etc).

And in the pursuit of these studies, to create and innovate for a sustainable management of our resources, goods and services.

This is evidenced by the development of this new form of urbanization with “smart cities”, cities designed and built using different types of AI.

smart cities vision AI mobility ecology

AI for sustainable urbanization: smart cities

AI offers multiple ways to make cities smarter and more sustainable.

Defining a “smart city

A smart city uses available technologies to improve the quality of life of its inhabitants, reduce its ecological footprint and improve its operational efficiency.

Data is collected by sensors and monitoring systems to provide real-time information on such things as: traffic, air quality, energy consumption, etc.

This data will then be used to optimize city management, improve mobility, reduce energy consumption and ultimately encourage citizen participation.

smart cities innovation sustainable AI

The benefits of AI in building sustainable smart cities

The ultimate goal of these smart cities is to create a more sustainable, more efficient and more pleasant urban environment for us, city dwellers.

Whether it is mobility, energy, security or waste management, the AI used in the cities of the future responds to the problems of the new generations:

  • reduction of energy consumption,
  • Reduced traffic congestion,
  • improved public safety
  • waste reduction.

Going further: will cities save the world? ?

smart cities modern transport

The challenges of AI to make our cities “smart cities

You will have noticed it and you are probably wondering: AI is a perfect tool to optimize the organization of our companies, certainly, however, how to protect the handling of all these collected data?

Indeed, as mentioned above, sensors and other monitoring systems are programmed to capture and analyze the surrounding data.

What about the privacy of citizens? How can we ensure that these systems are trusted?

How to ensure a healthy collaboration between the different actors: governments, companies, universities, or even us, citizens.

The answer, as is often the case, is to find a happy medium.

Examples of smart cities

In fact, smart cities are developing a little more every day.

  • Singapore: considered one of the most advanced smart cities in the world, with intelligent transportation systems, environmental monitoring sensors and efficient energy management.
  • Barcelona: Barcelona is a smart city that uses technologies to improve the quality of life of its inhabitants. The city has developed mobile applications to facilitate travel, citizen participation and waste management.
  • Tokyo: improving mobility, safety and energy efficiency, Tokyo has also developed projects for waste management and environmental protection.
  • Amsterdam: With an efficient energy management system, intelligent transportation systems and waste management projects, Amsterdam has also developed mobile applications to encourage citizen participation.
  • Dubai: Like the cities mentioned above, Dubai uses technology to improve mobility, security and energy management. It has also developed projects for water management and renewable energy production.

Beyond the financial aspect, which certainly takes an important place in the debate on the quest for a more sustainable innovation, one of the most important parts of this work lies in changing mentalities.

What about companies?

sustainable enterprise smart cities

The impact of AI on business innovation

On a smaller scale, the challenges remain the same.

Using AI can help companies innovate by improving efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. However, the data collection and analysis part, with all the privacy and consumer trust issues necessarily arise.

Again, there are examples of companies seeking to innovate in a sustainable way through AI:

  • to help manage the carbon footprint of data centers by predicting energy consumption and optimizing energy efficiency.
  • optimize the energy consumption of buildings.
  • prevent water pollution by monitoring pollution levels and predicting contamination risks.
  • Pursue sustainability in supply chains, monitoring greenhouse gas emissions and optimizing water and resource use.

Galeon: sustainable innovation in the service of medicine thanks to medical AI

On a daily basis, Galeon is constantly coming up with ideas to innovate in medical AI.

The idea is to improve both the health systems in general, the working conditions of health care workers, or research ….etc.

This is a major task, especially when it comes to protecting patient data.

To do this, Galeon has several strings to its bow:

  • Use of the blockchain to validate the secure transfer of medical data.
  • Using blockchain swarm learning (BSL), inspired by the concept of machine learning, to quickly and accurately analyze health data at scale.
  • Development of a shield system(Hacker Defense Protection, HDP) to secure partner hospitals’ IT infrastructures against hacker attacks.
  • Development of an AI model for billing caregivers’ acts to facilitate their work and improve the traceability of care.
  • And more work underway on other AI projects to improve the working conditions of healthcare professionals and the quality of medical care.

In short, Galeon is not done with innovation!

hospital in smart cities medical AI

Conclusion

  • The different generations must take into account current and future societal challenges to contribute to sustainable innovation. ♻️
  • New technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI ) can contribute to the reorganization of our societies and companies into smart cities through real-time calculation of informative data. ?
  • Protecting the privacy of citizens is an important issue to address to ensure healthy collaboration between different stakeholders in sustainable innovation. ?
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